Dr. Christoph Marcinkowski is a German scholar in Islamic Studies, focussing on Shiite and Persiante societies, with a focus on the Arabian Gulf region, the Indian Ocean and Southeast Asia. As one of the pioneers in this field, he has published 12 books on the history and presence of those societies. For more than 15 years, he has taught and done research at universities and policy think tanks in Malaysia and Singapore and has also been in the editorial team of Columbia University's renowned Encyclopedia Iranica. Being an independent scholar and consultant and currently based in Germany, he is also an External Research Associate for the Bahrain Institute of Banking and Finance (BIBF), focussing on ethics in Islamic banking and finance. He obtained his MA from the Free University of Berlin, Germany, and his PhD from the International Islamic University of Malaysia, Kuala Lumpur, both in Islamic Studies.